Friday, November 29, 2019

The Question Of Pure Optimism In Their Eyes Were Watching God Essays

The Question Of Pure Optimism In Their Eyes Were Watching God In Their Eyes Were Watching God Janie goes through several relationships before [s]he pulled in her horizon like a great fish net. Pulled it from around the waist of the world and draped it over her shoulder (p. 184). In other words, not all the experiences that helped her to gain control of her life were positive ones. These experiences can be put into one of four relationships: Nanny, Logan Killicks, Jody Starks, and Tea Cake. No doubt that Nanny loved Janie a great deal, and naturally she wanted her granddaughter to have security beyond an old woman who would inevitably die. She also wanted more opportunities for Janie than she'd had as she grew up a slave. As she explains to Janie, [a]nd Janie, maybe it wasn't much, but Ah done de best Ah kin by you. Ah raked and scraped and bought dis lil piece uh land so you wouldn't have to stay in de white folks' yard and tuck yo' head befo' other chillun at school (p. 19). Nanny's intentions are only to make Janie's life better than hers was, but in an ironic twist she is the one who puts the shackles on Janie in the first place by marrying her off to the person, not of Janie's choice, but of her own. To give Janie a better life than a slave, Nanny would have done better to not be as controlling. Unfortunately, Janie seems only to remember this and not Nanny's love. Here Nanny had taken the biggest thing God ever made, the horizon-for no matter how far a person can go the horizon is still way beyond you-and pinched it in to such a little bit of a thing that she could tie it about her granddaughter's neck tight enough to choke her. She hated that old woman who had twisted her so in the name of love. (p.85) Logan Killicks then takes Nanny's place in Janie's life. Even for her controlling Nanny he is a poor substitute at best as he calls her spoiled and talks down to her. At one point he even criticizes her for being powerful independent (p. 29) for someone who had been born the way she had (as if she had a choice in the matter!). If Logan did genuinely care about Janie, then it could not have been a much more complex feeling than his wanting his tools or his mule around. But human beings are a great deal more complicated than that and (hopefully) are not satisfied with being considered a thing rather than a person. Logan goes to town to get a new mule and is expecting that Janie will automatically work with him, something she happens not to agree with. Logan's problem is that he has a set of expectations about Janie and she fails to live up to them. Had Logan been wiser, he would not have built himslef up so much and instead appreciated who Janie was and not who she wasn't. This is the last straw in a strained relationship. Jody Starks has ambition, which is probably not the thing that least attracts Janie to him. In any case, she leaves Logan Killicks to start a new relationship with Jody. Jody is the first person to hit Janie, and in general he treats her as if she were his property. She is made to tie up her hair, for instance, so that no one else in town can see her with it down. He tries to maintain her as a thing that no one else may look upon or take pleasure from, therefore he keeps control over her life. Ambition may have attracted Janie to Jodie, but the thing he loves is power, and even at his most sensitive to her he is still a shrewd man who's real intentions have to be second guessed at. One perplexing thing about Janie's relationship with Jody is why she doesn't leave. She certainly shows that she has the initiative when she leaves Logan Killicks, and by the time Jody has hit her for accidentally ruining their dinner it seems obvious that this is not a healthy relationship. So why does Janie stay?

Monday, November 25, 2019

Test Your Knowledge on the Gettysburg Address

Test Your Knowledge on the Gettysburg Address Characterized as both a prose poem and a prayer, Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address is a concise rhetorical masterwork. After reading the speech, take this short quiz, and then compare your responses with the answers below. Lincolns short speech begins, famously, with the words Four score and seven years ago. (The word score comes from an Old Norwegian word meaning twenty.) What famous document does Lincoln allude to in the first sentence of his speech?(A) The Declaration of Independence(B) The Articles of Confederation(C) Constitution of the Confederate States of America(D) The United States Constitution(E) Emancipation ProclamationIn the second sentence of his address, Lincoln repeats the verb conceived. What is the literal meaning of conceive?(A) to bring to an end, close(B) to overcome the distrust or animosity of; to appease(C) to be of interest or importance to(D) to become pregnant (with offspring)(E) to keep from being seen, found, or discoveredIn the second sentence of his address, Lincoln refers to that nation. Which nation is he talking about?(A) the Confederate States of America(B) the Northern States of America(C) the United States of America(D) Great Britain(E) Union States of America We are met, Lincoln says in line three, on a great battlefield of that war. What is the name of that battlefield?(A) Antietam(B) Harpers Ferry(C) Manassas(D) Chickamauga(E) GettysburgA tricolon is a series of three parallel words, phrases, or clauses. In which of the following lines does Lincoln employ a tricolon?(A) We have come to dedicate a portion of it, as a final resting place for those who died here, that the nation might live. (B) Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.(C) This we may, in all propriety do.(D) The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here; while it can never forget what they did here.(E) But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground.This ground, Lincoln says, has been consecrated by the men . . . who struggled here. What is the meaning of consecrated?(A) empty, containing a deep space(B) soaked in blood(C ) made sacred(D) desecrated, violated(E) greeted in a warm and friendly manner Parallelism is a rhetorical term meaning similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses. In which of the following sentences does Lincoln use parallelism?(A) This we may, in all propriety do.(B) The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here; while it can never forget what they did here.(C) We are met on a great battlefield of that war.(D) But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground.(E) Both B and DLincoln repeats several key words in his short address. Which one of the following words does not appear more than once?(A) dedicated(B) nation(C) freedom(D) dead(E) livingThe phrase birth of freedom in the final line of Lincolns address calls to mind which similar phrase in the first sentence of the speech?(A) all men are created equal(B) conceived in liberty(C) Four score and seven years ago(D) dedicated to the proposition(E) upon this continentEpiphora (also known as epistrophe) is a rh etorical term meaning the repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses. In what portion of the long final sentence of The Gettysburg Address does Lincoln use epiphora?(A) It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here(B) this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom(C) that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause(D) we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain(E) government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish Answers to the  Reading Quiz on the Gettysburg Address (A)  The Declaration of Independence(D) to become pregnant (with offspring)(C) the United States of America(E) Gettysburg(E) But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground.(C) made sacred(E) Both B and D(C) freedom(B) conceived in liberty(E) government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish

Thursday, November 21, 2019

What is the Calorie Plate Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

What is the Calorie Plate - Research Paper Example In fact, the concept has never been introduced before. It uses state-of-the-art technology which digitally shows the number of calories the calorie plate contains. Calorie Plate has recently just been patented, with the concept coming from a group of students in Brisbane Australia. The emergence of this new product prompted the individuals involved in its intention to create a business unit that would market, sell and distribute the product in various locations within the country, and other major parts of the globe. The company behind Calorie Plate is named C-Med, Inc. Due to the nature of the product and the forecasted demand for its distribution in key sales channels for medical products, C-Med, Inc. will primarily take on a direct-selling approach to the product. This method shall be supported by both above-the-line and below-the-line advertising efforts, with specific emphasis on merchandising and web-based promotional and marketing activities. C-Med, Inc. will handle all aspects of the business – from manufacturing, operations, distribution, and marketing. The management will carry these out through partnerships with third-party suppliers and distributors to ensure that it reaches the right channels and the right market. As primarily a corporate type of business, all incorporators have invested an equal sum to make launch and operate the business. As a support to the current investments, C-Med, Inc. will open shares to other individuals who believe in the marketability of the product. Weight management is both wellness and aesthetic concern. Due to the competitive nature of the society we live in, people are now more conscious of their looks and their health. The first area of concern is one's health. As such, there are countless weight-management program and supplements in the market today. In Australia, there is a need to address the growing concern about the increasing number of people who may be considered obese.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Risk management Failure Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Risk management Failure - Essay Example The overall discharge of the spill was estimated at 4.9 million barrels, which covered an area of 780,000 cubic metres (Jervis and Levin 2010). The disaster was followed by major attempts to protect the estuaries and wetlands of the region, from the spreading oil. The impacts of the spill included the destruction of wildlife and marine habitats in the area; the stagnation of the tourism and the fishing industry of the region, as well as the human health issues that continued to be felt until year 2012 (Robertson and Krauss 2010). Following investigations, the causes of the disaster included the use of defective cement; the ineffectiveness of the operations of Halliburton and Transocean, as well as the lack of effective risk assessment by BP (NOAA 2011). This paper will explore the impact of BP’s failure to manage risks, which resulted in the BP disaster. The risk management failures of BP that led to the disaster Risk management failures were among the core factors that led to the 2010 BP disaster at the Gulf of Mexico (Zolkos and Bradford 2011). ... However, the contributory roles of the two secondary companies blamed for the disaster could have been mitigated through an effective investigation and the management of the risks facing the project. For example, the report from the investigation showed that the cement used during the construction was defective. Through effective risk assessment and management, BP would have discovered that the cement supplied was defective, therefore would outsource good cement for the project (Ingersoll, Richard and Reavis 2013). The Macondo blowout of 20th April 2010 was caused by a string of company decisions by BP, which increased the risk levels of the project. The company, also failed to assess different areas that would help it mitigate the risks of the project. These risk management failings include that BP did not carry out an official risk assessment of the critical operational choices made during the days prior to the disaster. For example, through administering an effective risk assessme nt process, the company would have discovered the risky operations planned during the execution of the project. Through the assessment, the BP Company would have exposed any organizational issues that were likely to affect the credibility of the decision-making process. Through exposing the different areas of risk – whether in the areas of planning or implementation – the company would have averted the incidence of the disaster. Therefore, the company’s failure to assess the risks that contributed to the disaster was a contributing factor. Through effective risk management prior to the disaster, the company would have detected the engineering weaknesses in the plant, therefore would have recommended some precautions to the issue (Zolkos and

Monday, November 18, 2019

The War On Drug Dealing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The War On Drug Dealing - Assignment Example I. Community policingEffective community policing involves some steps. the first thing to do towards achieving an effective community policing structure is to first educate the people on the manifest dangers of continued drug use and abuse. It is generally known that before there are drug use and abuse, there is drug dealing. it would be appropriate to conduct civic education to get people to know how drug abuse can be destructive to a country’s economy. The economy is derailed when there many people who are engaged in constructive activities that generate income. It generates more dependency and the dependency syndrome puts pressure on an economy, weighing it down. Drug use also leads to rising in vices like robbery with violence, rape etc. once people are made aware of all that, they take up the community policing on drug dealing and abuse as a matter of socio-economic importance and thus will report the crime as and when they are perpetrated. The benefits of the community p olicing approach include the following:A. Engages the people and makes them know the problems they have when the drug problem continuesB. Making people know that if their neighbor’s child reforms from the drug problem, then their own child is safe because nobody is likely to influence and lure them into drug abuseC. Discussing the drug abuse and addiction problem with the people makes it easy for them to relate the vice to slow pace of economic growth and the moral and social decay the societies grapple with today

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Synthesis And Characterization Of Glycerol Based Polymer Biology Essay

Synthesis And Characterization Of Glycerol Based Polymer Biology Essay In oleochemical industry, glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol) is always produced as a by-product in the manufacturing of acids, soaps, methyl esters, alcohols or nitrogen-containing derivatives. It can also be made from propene via epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane). However, the petrochemical supply route is less important due to the increasing supply of glycerol from oleochemical industry, the high price of propene and the demand for epichlorohydrin for other purposes (Gunstone Henning, 2004). Figure 1.1 Glycerol Glycerol possesses a unique combination of physical and chemical properties which are utilized in many commercial products. It is hygroscopic, colourless, odorless, viscous, sweet-tasting, low boiling point, non-toxic, emollient, a good solvent, and water soluble. Besides, it is easily biodegradable (Gunstone Henning, 2004). Furthermore, it is very stable under normal storage conditions, compatible with many other chemical materials, non-irritating in its various uses, and does not have negative effects on the environment (Pagliaro Rossi, 2008). The glycerol market is currently undergoing radical changes, driven by very large supplies of glycerol arising from biodiesel production. The effort to reduce the dependence on foreign oil has increased the production of biodiesel and glycerol is the major co-product from the transesterification process used to produce biodiesel. Hence, there is a need to find new uses for glycerol. Polymerization is one of the methods which large amount of glycerol can be used (Wyatt et al., 2006). There two types of polymerizations. First, soluble products are obtained regardless of the extent to which the reaction is carried toward completion. The products formed are mainly linear polymers. The second type of polymerization is those that lead to gelled or insoluble products, provided that the reaction is carried far enough. The reactants are capable of producing large three dimensional molecules (Flory, 1941). According to Flory (1941), gelation occurs only when there is the possibility of unlimited growth in three dimensions. It is a significant characteristic of polymerizing systems to have a sharply defined gel point at a certain critical extent of reaction which is independent of temperature, amount of catalyst and so on. Through polymerization of glycerol, the pre-polymers synthesized could be further reacted to produce longer chains of hyperbranched polymers. Hyperbranched polymers belong to the family of macromolecules known as dendrimers. Dendrimers are highly branched monodispersed molecules produced by multistep syntheses. Preparation of dendrimers requires a high degree of purity of the starting material and high yields of the individual synthetic step. On the other hand, hyperbranched polymers are randomly branched molecules prepared by a simple one-step reaction (Wyatt et al., 2006) via polyaddition, polycondensation, radical polymerisation, and so forth, of an ABn monomer (Vogtle et al., 2009). Due to their unique combination of low viscosity, excellent solubility, and facile synthesis, hyperbranched polymers have received significant attention (Lin, Q Long, T.E., 2003). Reaction of the functional A groups with the functional B (coupling) groups of a second monomer molecule gives rise to randomly branched molecule. Since the C groups are present in excess (n à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ 2), crosslinking are avoided from the outset. Reaction can be brought to a standstill by addtion of stopper components. Since the synthesis of hyperbranched polymers does not involve coupling to core molecule, but only ABn monomers react with one another. Both branched molecules and linear sequences maybe formed (Vogtle et al., 2009). Hyperbranched polymers produced from diacids (A2) and glycerol (B3) are an example of the AB2 system. AB2 monomers are not readily available and kinetic calculations show that the first condensation reaction, which produces an AB2 species, is faster than the subsequent polymer propagation. Thus, the remainder of the reaction progresses as polycondensation between AB2-type species prior to the gel point. Several methods have been used to avoid gelation in A2+B3 systems, including performing the reactions in dilute solutions or reacting them in the absence of solvents while monitoring. This glycerol-based polymer is expected to show similar properties and characteristics as polyalkylene glycol (PAG). A polyalkylene glycol having the general formula: HO-[R-O-]n H in which n has a value of at least 2 and R is an alkylene radical containing at least 10 carbon atoms. PAG liquid are used as synthetic lubricants in many diverse applications. Thus, glycerol-based polymers could also have the potential to be use as high performance lubricant, coolant or as a lubricant additive (such as viscosity modifier). Materials with polymeric structures can be used in lubricant to enhance its properties, such as viscosity, pour point and so on. It can be used as starting material for certain types of additives. These polymeric additives can be viscosity modifier, pour point depressants, emulsifiers and demulsifiers, and foam inhibitor in lubricants (Totten, G.E. et al., 2003). Oils can be effective lubricants at low temperature. However, at higher temperature, they become less effective. To overcome this problem, viscosity modifiers are useful in minimizing viscosity variations with temperature. Viscosity modifier is a polymer with average molecular weights of 10000 to 150000. At all temperatures, viscosity modifier is able to increase oils viscosity. The thickening of oil at lower temperature is less than that at higher temperature. At low temperatures, the polymer molecules occupying a small volume have a minimum association with the bulk oil. The situation is reversed at high temperatures as the polymer chains expand due to the increased thermal energy. Besides, at higher temperatures, polymers are more soluble and therefore cause the viscosity to increase(Totten, G.E. et al., 2003). There are two types of viscosity modifiers available commercially: olefin-based polymers and ester polymers. Polyisobutylenes (PIBs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), and hydrogenated styrene-diene (STDs) polymers. Ester polymers include polymethacrylates (PMAs) and styrene ester polymers (SEs) (Totten, G.E. et al., 2003). Literature Review In a research done by Wyatt and his co-workers (2006), novel oligomeric prepolymers were synthesized by acid-catalyzed condensation of glycerol with iminodiacetic. The prepolymers were obtained after purification by chromatography in an average yield of 62%. The compounds were characterized by using 13C NMR, 1H NMR, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry, and gel permeation chromatography. It was discovered that linear products bearing cyclic urethane structures were obtained in the reaction between iminodiacetic acid and glycerol. Qi Lin and Timothy E. Long (2003) studied the polymerization of A2 with B3 monomers to produce hyperbranched poly(aryl estrer)s. A dilute bisphenol A (A2) solution was added slowly to a dilute 1,3,5-benzene tricarbonyl trichloride (B3) solution at 25 °C to prepare hyperbranched poly(aryl ester)s in the absence of gelation. The molar ratio of A2:B3 was maintained at 1:1. The maximum final monomer concentration was ~0.08 M. The phenol functionalities were quantitatively consumed during the polycondensation. This was showed in 1H NMR spectroscopy and derivitization of terminal groups. Two model compounds were synthesized to identify 1H NMR resonances for linear, dentritic, and terminal units. The final degree of branching was determined to be ~50%. The hyperbranched polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures compared to their analogues. J.F. Stumbe and Bernd Bruchmann (2003) also used the A2+B3 approach to prepare hyperbranched polyesters with controlled molecular weights and properties. The process was carried out by reacting glycerol and adipic acid without any solvents. Tin catalysts was used. The products were evaluated by size exclusion chromatography(SEC) analysis and NMR spectroscopy to determine molecular weights and degrees of branching. A study was also carried out on the glycerol esters from reaction of glycerol with dicarboxylic esters. The glycerol esters were synthesized by the base catalyzed reaction of glycerol with aliphatic dicarboxylic acid esters (such as dimethyl oxalate, dimethyl glutarate, dimethyl adipate, etc). Various parameters that may affect the transesterification were studied in order to optimize the yield of products. The reactions were carried out by varying the glycerol/ester molar ratios. The optimum ratio was 4:1, whereby the quantity of the monoester was 60% after 8 h. The conversion decreased slightly when the molar ratio exceeded 4:1. At higher temperatures, the amount of monoester in the reaction mixtures increased and it reached a maximum level after 6 h when the reaction was carried out at 100  °C to 120  °C. It took 8 h at a lower temperature. However, the overall yield at the end of the reaction was not affected by the temperature. The formation of both monoester and diester wer e produced in an overall yield of 80% after 15 h of reaction time (Cho et al., 2006). Sunder et. al. (1999) carried out a controlled synthesis of hyperbranched polyglycerols by ring opening multibranching polymerization. Hyperbranched aliphatic polyethers with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distribution were prepared via anionic polymerization of glycidol with rapid cation-exchange equilibrium. Glycidol which represents a cyclic AB2 monomer was polymerized in a ring-opening multibranching (ROMBP). The anionic polymerization was carried out under slow addition conditions with partially deprotonated (10%) 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)propane (TMP) as the initiator. 13C NMR, MALDI-TOF spectrometry, vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), and GPC were used to characterize molecular weights and polydispersities of the polyols formed. The 13C NMR spectra used to assess the degree of branching (DB) ranged from 0.53-0.59. A complete attachment of hyperbranched polymers to TMP initiator and the absence of macrocyclics were showed in MALDI-TOF spectra. There was n o macrocyclics or hyperbranched macromolecule obtained, due to slow addtion. T.J. Mulkern and N.C. Beck Tan (2000) studied a series of blends of hyperbranched polyester with high molecular weight polystyrenes. The processability and compatibility in the blends were investigated as a function of volume fraction of hyperbranched polyols (HBP) added and reactivity of the matrix phase. Due to its low viscosity and high reactivity, HBP polymers are suitable for reactive polymer blending. Through processing and rheological studies, it was found that HBPs are effective processing aids. A significant drop in the blend viscosity occurs immediately on addition of HBP, even at levels as low as 2 vol. %. In 1934, Herman Bruson discovered a synthetic oil additive when he was exploring the synthesis and possible applications of longer alkyl side chain methacrylates. Brusons invention, polymethacrylates (PMAs) was found to have the potential to function as thickener or viscosity index improver for mineral oils. It increases viscosity at higher temperature more than at lower temperatures (Kinker, B.G., 2009). The alkly group in the ester portion of the polymer can be altered to obtain products with better oil solubility and viscosity-improving properties. It also have good compatibility with a large number of refined and synthetic basestocks. In a study by Duncan and Turner (1997), blends of lubricant basestocks with high viscosity complex alcohol esters were produced. The blend comprises of a polyhydroxyl compound R(OH)n, a polybasic acid and a monohydric alcohol. The complex alcohol ester showed a pour point of less than or equal to -20 °C and a viscosity in the range about 100-700 cSt at 40 °C. The lubricating oil according to Duncan and Turners invention has excellent lubricity as determined by engine performance, vane pump test, Yamaha Tightening Test, and reduced valve sticking. Besides, it has good stability as evidenced by the results of RBOT and Cincinnati Milacron tests. The lubricant has also unexpected biodegradability as measured by Sturm test (Duncan et al., 1997). Hunt et al. (1993) carried out supercritical fluid extraction to analyse liquid poly(alklene glycol)(PAG) lubricants and sorbitan ester formulations. The PAG matrix was adsorbed onto silica and the selectivity obtained by this method was compared with that obtained by the direct extraction of adsorbed and unadsorbed PAG. Extraction was also done for unadsorbed PAG through the in-line column and it was successful in separating additives from all but the lowest molecular mass PAG oligomers. This extraction procedure enabled fractionation of the product and could be used as a sample preparation technique for further spectroscopic analysis. It is difficult to produce polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions by traditional methods. Supercritical fluid technology is applied to overcome the conventional methods. The solubilty parameter of supercritical fluid can be tailored. Selective extraction and fractionation are possible from multi-component mixtures. The key to making high quality polymers is to ensure precise control of molecular weight and polydispersity at high yield while keeping residual contaminants below acceptable tolerance levels. Hernandez et. al. (2005) tested the rolling fatigue of three polyglycols (PAG-9, PAG-12 and BREOX-B-135X). Polyglycols (also called PAG or polyalkylene glycols) are widely used in the lubrication industry. These compounds have very high viscosity indexes, very low pour points, a high thermal conductivity with respect to mineral oils, hydrolytic stability, etc. Rolling fatigue tests were carried out using IP-300 standard in order to obtain the characterization of the fluids. A four ball test machine was used and 10% life (L10) and 50% life (L50) were obtained. The stress-time curves for L10 and L50 were also determined. All polyglycols were tested under boundary lubrication regime (ÃŽÂ » In oils of the same family, the pressure-viscosity coefficient is relatively constant. An increase in viscosity improved the minimum film thickness with the consequent increase of the ÃŽÂ » ratio. Fatigue life is largely a function of the ratio of lubricating film thickness to composite surface roughness (ÃŽÂ » ratio). Differences in ÃŽÂ » ratio for the three polyglycols resulted in different asperity interactions and rolling contact fatigue lives. With regard to rolling contact fatigue, the choice of viscosity class should avoid asperity interaction, so that the only mode of failure will be subsurface failure. Although average pressure in the contact was the same, increase in viscosity from PAG-9 to BREOX-B135X improved the ÃŽÂ » ratio from 0.18 to 0.34. At less ÃŽÂ » An investigation was then carried put by Garcia and co-workers on PC-SAFT volumetric and phase behavior of carbon dioxide + PAG or POE lubricant systems. The densities of synthetic PAG oil was measured from 283.15 K to 333.15 K while the solubilities of CO2 in this oil was measured from 253 K to 333.15 K. Molecular weight of the lubricant was estimated using fast atom bombardment (FAB). Molecular weight and experimental densities were used to calculate characteristic parameters of PC-SAFT model for several commercial PAG oils. Transferable characteristic parameters were used for POEs. The thermophysical properties and phase behaviour of CO2-lubricant oil mixtures is important for the design of refrigeration and air-conditioning. The circulating fluid comes into contact with the lubricant used in compressors and a portion of the oil is transported into the refrigeration circuit with various effects in terms of performance. If the oil is immiscible with the refrigerant, the compressor may be damaged due to poor oil return to the compressor. Oil may accumulate inside the heat exchanger tubes reducing heat transfer capabilities, enthalpy change and resulting in an overall decrement of the refrigeration capacity and cycle performance. In addition, high solubility of the refrigerant in the lubricant may reduce the viscosity of the oil-rich phase and results in lower lubrication properties which gives rise to breakdown of the compressor mechanical parts. Hauk Weidner (2000) studied the thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic properties of carbon dioxide with different lubricants in cooling circuits for automobile application. The datas of the binary mixture were measured at temperatures between 5 and 100  °C under pressure of up to 150 bar. The phase behavior was observed qualitatively in a hugh-pressure view cell and was determined in an autoclave based on a static-analytical method. The viscosity of the lubricant saturated with carbon dioxide was measured with an integrated quartz viscosimeter. The applicability of lubricants in car-climatization systems can be evaluated with the knowledge of phase behavior and the resulting viscosity of gas-saturated lubricantsThe phase behavior of oils with carbon dioxide can be divided into three different types which are binary systems with closed miscibility gaps, systems with open miscibility gaps, and systems that show barotropic phenomena. Oils that show barotropic behavior in contact with compressed carbon dioxide are not recommended as lubricants. Oils with complete or limited miscibility with carbon dioxide may be used. Firdovsi Yagoub (2006) investigated the synthetic heat carrier oil compositions based on polyalklene glycols. Thermal stability, mass loss on vaporisation at 250  °C, 350  °C and changing the specifications after heating at 300  °C for 10 h were also studied. The prepared PAGs have been taken as basic components for heat carrier oil compositions. It was discovered that the specifications of PAGs such as viscosity indices, pour points, acid number and flash points changed dramatically upon heat treating. In order to improve the thermal stability and viscosity indices, anti-oxidant and anti-foaming additives were added to the base material to reach optimum compositions. The obtained heat carrier oils showed comparable improved properties in comparison with commercially available heat carriers. Methodology This project will be divided into 2 stages as listed below. Poly(glycerol-diacid) polymer will be prepared by using different hydrocarbon chain length of diacids (such as azelaic, succinic and adipic acid). The products will be analysed in order to study their chemical and physical properties. Phase 1 : Chemical reactions of glycerol with different hydrocarbon chain length of diacid compounds (e.g. azelaic, succinic or adipic acid) at different mole ratios, are carried out under N2. The mixtures were charged to a reaction vessel equipped with distillation apparatus. The reaction product is allowed to react at the desired temperature and time. Acid value (AV), hydroxyl value (OHV) and glycerol content will be measured to maintain the reaction progress. Optimization of the reaction parameters will be studied by varying different reaction parameters such as type and amount of diacid, reaction time, temperature and pressure. The final product will be washed, dried and characterised. Phase 2 : The products obtained will be analysed by using both High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Other instrumentation such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) will also be utilised to further confirm their molecular structure. Physical properties of the products obtained such as viscosity, solubility, flash point, fire point, density, specific gravity, biodegradability, and oxidative stability will be performed. Expected result: Polymers resulting from the copolymerisation of glycerol with diacids of varying carbon chain length, molecular structure, and composition will be obtained. Structures having more than two free acid functionalities at the end-terminals can occur only after branching. As the time of reaction proceeds, the viscosity increases which limits the interaction between the reactants and the growing polymers. The water solubilty of the oligomers decreases with increasing chain length of the diacid monomers of the diacid monomers used in preparing the oligomers. This glycerol based polymers are expected to possess wide range of applications such as cosmetics and lubricants.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Revolutionary Aftermath of the Civil War Essay -- Racism Discrimin

The Revolutionary Aftermath of the Civil War Despite many hardships that remained from the antebellum state of the union, reconstruction was a socially and constitutionally revolutionary period. The attempts to deter black voters were greatly outweighed by the numbers of blacks voting, as well as the laws that were passed to protect the rights of American citizens, black and white alike. The years after the war saw a rise in the number of human rights laws that were passed, most of which were primarily focused on blacks, but included whites as well. In document D, Gideon Welles stated that the national government didn’t hold the power to grant suffrage to anyone, nor had it shown any interest in the matter. Because of this, the state governments were able to enact black codes which restrained citizens, both black and white, from voting because they were illiterate or because they weren’t of a high enough economic status. This later changed as blacks became more active in government and voiced their upset to the national government, as shown by Document C. B...

Monday, November 11, 2019

CELTA Assignment: Southern Cross Teacher Training

Southern Cross Teacher Training Cambridge University CELTA Skills Assignment |Name |Submission date |Word count | | | | | |Signature to confirm the assignment is your own work | | | These are the criteria by which this assignment is assessed.Before submitting the assignment, double check to make sure you have specifically addressed each area of assessment sufficiently. |Criteria |Trainer Comments | |Correctly use terminology that relates to language | | |skills and sub-skills, e. g. make sure a task you | | |design and name as skim reading is indeed a skim | | |reading task. | | |Relate task design to language skills development, | | |e. . make sure you provide a rationale for each task| | |(e. g. why is the initial task a reading for gist? ). | | |Find, select, and reference information learnt about| | |skills development from one or more sources. | |Use written language that is clear, accurate and | | |appropriate to the task. | | | | | | | | | |Pass 1st submission | Resubm ission required | | | |Fail | | | | | | | | | | | | Skills Related TasksSection 1: Justification of text The text that I have chosen, a critical review of ‘Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2’, has the potential to be hugely engaging and I could create a very interesting and enjoyable lesson based from it. The film itself is very dramatic and universal to all audiences, and the text depicts this clearly. This allows learners to read the language on offer and use the video trailer in the lead-in as contextual background.Using a film review format, a format that the learners will be familiar with, means that there will be greater focus on the reading skills of the learners, as they maybe put off by an unknown format, such as a legal document or medical journal. In addition the format of a film review is one that all learners would have seen before in a ‘real-world’ context and therefore understand the purpose and delivery of this text. As the film is recent and the whole series of films and books are a worldwide phenomenon, learners may appreciate the relevance and understanding of the basic plot and characters in the film.This maybe an advantage than teaching a previously unknown book or film as extra class time may be required to explain the synopsis and context to the learners. As a film review, the text is specifically designed to inform and entertain the general public about the film in question. This means learners will hopefully enjoy reading the text and will be interested to find out the opinion of a professional film critic, and perhaps compare that to their own opinions of the film.I will get the learners to use their own opinions of films by asking them to write a film review of their own. The learners can use the given text as a film review model so that they know what sort of lexis, register and structure to use for their productive task. This task will allow for free practice, however with a modeled example and a lso practice on forming critical opinions. Section 2 – A means of developing receptive skills and sub skills I will be trying to develop the learners’ reading skills.I will vary the activities so sometimes they maybe reading for certain facts, or reading in depth for a full and detailed understanding of the text. The first task I will give the learners will be a simple and straightforward ‘gist-task’ where learners have to confirm their predictions they made in the lead in task. Learners will be reading for specific information so may not read the full text in detail. This type of ‘gist-reading’ or reading for basic understanding will hopefully get the learners engaged in the text and get them understanding the context of the text.Reading for pre-defined material is another subskill that I could use this text to develop, as Harmer states in Practical English Language Teaching[1] how vital â€Å"extensive reading for the development of our stu dent’s word recognition† is. He thinks that â€Å"students need to be involved in both intensive and extensive reading† and hence the reason why the gist task I have chosen focuses on extensive reading and the detailed task does so on intensive reading.I would ask learners to read again and set some basic comprehension questions, perhaps in a true/false format or multiple-choice format. They will then have the opportunity to confirm this by pair comparison and open class feedback, accompanied by delayed error feedback. Using both types of reading techniques helps to improve both types of reading skills, which is something that learners will need for practically using English outside of the classroom. For a lead-in to this text I would initially show the class the trailer of the film.This will give a good engaging context to the lesson and all learners, irrespective of those who have seen the film, are on a the same level of pre-existing contextual knowledge. This means a greater focus on reading skills and language can occur, rather learners being confused about the plot and characters. I could perhaps use the trailer to elicit predictions form the learners about what happens in the film. I would then go on to elicit predictions about the success of the film and whether it was it would get a positive or negative review.Learners will then be thinking about their own opinions of the film and would find an authentic film review very useful to compare their own ideas. This would then lead straight into me handing out the text and asking learners to complete the gist task. This lead-in should aim to get learners thinking about Harry Potter and then subsequently on the topic of film reviews and critical opinions. As this document is a published in an international newspaper there are a few words that will need clarification for intermediate learners.I plan on highlighting five previously unseen words that are crucial for understanding of the text and not possible for their meaning to be deducted from the context. Only after the gist task will I go to elicit the meanings from these words, perhaps using antonyms, connotations or example sentences, as most of the complex lexis in the text are adjectives. Using these type of methods to clarify meaning I will hopefully be able to increase the knowledge of the learners while giving the learners a higher level of detail in their comprehension.For example I would have to clarify the meaning of ‘grim’. In order to do this I explain it was the antonym of happy/cheery, it is usually meant to describe desperate/bleak situations, and show an example sentence such as â€Å"it was a grim situation when the engine stopped†. If the learners were having further problems with the lexis other than the five specific words, I would write some synonyms on the board. This will allow learners to be able to understand the entirety of the text as well as expand their vocabulary.Th e varied comprehension activities that focus on developing different types of reading skills are attached. The first task (Question 1) is the initial gist question, where the learners have to guess the probable title and subtitle of the text. This means the learners will have to read the content of the text quickly to find out what the theme and approximate content of the text. In addition I asked the learners to write the title in the same style as the text is written, therefore meaning the learners have to scan read quickly for what sort of the language the author is using.This is backed up by the familiarity of the type of text and the content, which gives learners a deeper contextual background. Even if the learners are unsuccessful in guessing the title and its form the pair work comparisons and controlled open class feedback will allow learners to be exposed to other learners ideas and language. Then I would move onto the detailed comprehension task. Once the learners have rea d the text once for the gist task they will have to go back and read it after reading the detailed questions (Question 2).The detailed comprehension questions results in learners having to read the text in depth. However the information in the questions are predefined information that directs the learner to the specific part of the text to read in detail. The learners should be able to complete this task individually but if there are any learners struggling I can pair them up with a stronger partner for the learner-to-learner feedback. After that is complete I will get the learners to mark their own answers by using the key.This is often one of the best way for learners to see their own errors and more importantly why the made the error that they did. After this I would bring the class together again in open class feedback and go through any of the harder questions and explain why the learners made the errors they did. Section 3 – Developing productive skills and sub-skills I am aiming to develop the writing skills, in particular the draft writing skills of the learners. The text I have chosen is a model of a film review, so I am going to ask the learners to write their own film review about a film they have seen recently.Therefore the learners know what type of language, register and lexis is needed to write a film review. The learners will need a good level of writing skills because, as Jim Scrivener in Learning Teaching[2] backs up, â€Å"many learners have a specific need to work on writing skills† and â€Å"writing involves a different kind of mental process, there is more time to think, to reflect, to prepare, to rehearse, to make mistakes and find alternative and better solutions†. After finishing the reading task I would get the learners to write down five different opinions they had about their chosen film.This preparation time would allow learners to formulate ideas and more importantly how to convey them, while also allowing the m to collect their ideas together without being under pressure. From the step I would then set a time pressured situation where the learners have to come up with a draft version of their review. The benefit of this they will not focus on grammar and language but on the actual content. In addition the time pressure means the actual draft writing skills of the learners will improve, as under no time pressure the learners could write an accurate film review but not increase their skills.The next stage would be to give the learners an opportunity to self correct their work. In this step they would focus on grammar and language mistakes. If they can recognize their own errors without prompting then this is an improvement in their writing skills, as they would have to know the correct language to identify a mistake. This also makes them aware of the errors they are making themselves so in future they can get it right first time.Depending on the practicality of the classroom layout, I woul d either put the film reviews on the wall and have the learners read each other’s in a gallery type format or have another learner read their review. This means other learners have the opportunity to correct other learner’s work and the errors that were not spotted in the first self-correction will be made obvious to the learners. I would finally finish the class with some open class feedback and delayed error correction. Again this adds to the learners writing skills development, as it is obvious where the learners can improve

Friday, November 8, 2019

Legal but Deadly Essay

Legal but Deadly Essay Legal but Deadly Essay Legal but Deadly Prescription for Disaster 1/11/2013 The non-medical use and abuse of prescription drugs is a serious public health problem in this country. Although most people take prescription medications responsibly, an estimated 52 million people have used prescription drugs for non-medical reasons at least once in their lifetimes. They are potentially deadly when taken in large doses or when combined with alcohol or other drugs. Take Gerald Levert, an R including Vicodin, Percocet, and Darvocet for his shoulder and Achilles tendon injuries, also Xanax for anxiety attacks. Just because they are legal does not mean that pharmaceutical drugs are any less dangerous than illicit drugs. There are several misconceptions about taking prescription drugs without a prescription. One is that people think because they are prescribed by a doctor and are legal that they must be safe. They tend to believe that they are safer than illicit drugs like heroin, cocaine, and marijuana. Individuals have confidence in that they are not as addictive. There is also the belief by many using prescription drugs, even recreationally, that they can quit whenever they want. Taking these drugs without knowing the warning signs and getting behind the wheel of a car or heavy machinery, could ultimately be fatal. The fact is prescription drugs are very powerful and that is why they require a prescription from a doctor, so their use can be monitored more closely. Doctors regulate use of these drugs so they can inform patients about the risk factors and side effects. Taking more than you are prescribed increases your chances of severe side effects and up to addiction. Drug abuse is discriminatory; it does not care about race, gender, age or social status. Prescription drugs are everywhere, they are advertised daily on television, easily purchased without a prescription online, and most people have them in their medicine cabinets. The younger generation has begun to use them as a way to self-medicate; they get them from home and through friends. Even drug dealers are selling them because they have become more popular than illicit drugs like cocaine and marijuana. People are becoming more susceptible to sharing their prescriptions with others, not thinking of the affects they could have. Individuals tend to believe that a pill can fix almost any problem they have because that’s how they are advertised everywhere you look. There continues to be a more social acceptance of using medications, so the misuse is not frowned upon by many as drug abuse. Many people, of all ages, misuse prescription drugs to relieve pain, if they have sleeping problems, have trouble focusing, or just want to get high. Every person has their own excuses for using. They may be finding different ways to cope with the pressures of life’s demands, dealing with stress that occurs because of adaption, frustration, and overload of daily problems. Peer pressure is and always has been a factor concerning drug abuse. Younger individuals have their own set of rules concerning authority figures and friends, having the mind set to be adventurous and be like others in the â€Å"group†. Users think that drugs help them by keeping them motivated, by enhancing their performance, to be more creative, relieve tension, and most commonly it makes them feel good about themselves. An analysis from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) showed that in 2008 emergency room records reported that more than 4.3 million visits were associated with some form of drug abuse. This number is up over an overwhelming 70 percent from2004. Almost half of the 4.3 million were results of drug misuse or abuse. The remaining 2 million were the result of legal medical use of prescription and over- the- counter drugs. ("Prescription Drugs More Dangerous Than

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

How To Monetize Your Content Marketing With Gini Dietrich

How To Monetize Your Content Marketing With Gini Dietrich You’re already putting a lot of time and energy into creating great content. So wouldn’t it be great if it could be making even more money for you? And it would be even better if you knew before you even posted it that it would be successful. When it comes to monetizing your blog, knowing what is going to appeal to your audience ahead of time is priceless. Today’s guest, Gini Dietrich, founder and CEO of Arment Dietrich, and the  lead blogger of Spin Sucks, is speaking to us today about content monetization. Gini is also the author of the book, Spin Sucks, as well as Marketing in the Round. If you’ve been thinking about how to bring in more money with your content, today’s episode is perfect for you!

Monday, November 4, 2019

Learning Diary - Home to Home with Media and Junk Food Times Essay

Learning Diary - Home to Home with Media and Junk Food Times - Essay Example In the last few years, the effects of mass media have increased greatly with the progress of technology. Initially, there were books, newspapers, and magazines, then photography, sound recordings, and films. Radio, television, and the Internet proliferated followed by social media (Anderson Bushman 2002). In the modern day, every person depends on communication and information to make their lives move through activities such as education, work, healthcare, leisure activities, personal relationships, travelling, entertainment, and other things that people get involved. It is usual to wake up in the morning, check the phone for notifications and messages, watch the TV or read newspapers for news, read emails, makes phone calls, and eat meals with family and friends based on the information gathered from mass media and social media sources. The values people hold; harbour and the decisions made by people are based on assumptions, experiences, and education. People rely on media for current facts, news on what is important, and what people need to know. People believe the media since it is an authority for information, education, news, and entertainment. Considering the media’s powerful influence, it is imperative to know how it works. In a world of globalization, the media possess much potential. The media has the prospect of spreading news and information to areas where it has been hard to get different views. The media has the potential to assist towards democratic processes and make an impact on regimes and countries that lack democracy. However, the media can push the cultures and ideas of more prevailing interest (Livingstone & Bovill 2013). The media’s influence is growing stronger every day. Because of the influence, the competition among advertisers and producers gets stiff as they attempt to find new ways to catch consumers' attention through their magazines, newspapers, shows, movies, and commercials.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

UNIT FIVE Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

UNIT FIVE - Assignment Example The ANA is a professional body that represents interests of over 3 million nurses in the United States (Mahlin, 2010). To make this an easier task, the ANA has incepted constituent and state associations. To begin with, the ANA is destined to foster high standards in nursing practice and promote the rights of nurses at their work place. Similarly, it provides a realistic view of nursing in a positive way. It extends its determination to improve the sector by engaging Congress and other regulatory bodies to achieve its mission (Naylor & Kurtzman, 2010). Its mission states that it is determined to advance nursing as a profession to improve the health of those that need it. The second association is the International Council of Nurses (ICN). This is an international body that aims to bring together all the registered nurses in many countries. As a matter of fact, the organization has embedded more than 130 nursing associations. Apparently, the organization has a limited number of member organizations in each country, which is equivalent to one. It has incorporated the all-inclusive structure that permits other domestic groups in nursing to become members (Carter et al., 2010). Its mission is to improve the nursing structure and service delivery from all the aspects in the sector. The leadership of ICN is in the hands of the President and three Vice Presidents who act as the executive committee. Comparatively, the ICN is similar to the ANA only that the ICN operates in a wider geographical region. The third nursing group that is proving to be instrumental is the National Association of Neonatal Nurses (NANN). The NANN addresses the educational needs and practices within neonatal nursing and specialty. Therefore, members benefit from the representation given by the organization. The NANN is similar to other associations only in that it is committed to improving the educational needs and specialty of neonatal nurses. Similarly, it explores other means of educating ne onatal nurses by focusing on peer reviewed publications, educational conferences, books, and other informative materials in the neonatal practice. The managers of these associations are instrumental driving forces in achieving the goals and missions of the group. For example, the managers ensure they hold annual meetings to evaluate the progress. As such, they are able to forge a way forward in implementing all the discussions. Secondly, there are negotiations with governing bodies which include Congress and governments in implementing the stated claims. Thirdly, these associations gather information through research to ensure the practice is being improved with time. Without such aspects, the nursing associations are not likely to mark an improvement in their respective work groups. In order to reach a collective bargain, there are various elements that are influential. First, workers are allowed to join any association of their choice as long as it does not affect their service de livery (Carter et al., 2010). This is constitutional, and nurses are allowed to join any group that will foster them to achieve their goals. Secondly, most of the nurses feel the urge to join these associations since they add value to the nurses. For example, the need to improve the service delivery pushes the nurses to join these groups for additional education. Thirdly, the nursing associations enhance the rights of nurses at their work place. Therefore, nurses join these