Friday, January 24, 2020

The State of Georgia vs. Evolutionary Biology :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The State of Georgia vs. Evolutionary Biology Douglas J. Futuyma, in Evolutionary Biology defined evolution as, "...change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual. The ontogeny of an individual is not considered evolution; individual organisms do not evolve. The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next." (1) Like most of the population, I've never picked up a copy of Evolutionary Biology and have only recently thought about the most correct definition of the term. The issue at hand is that most people do not reference scientific texts when formulating an opinion about evolution. Webster's Dictionary defines evolution as "...the development of a species, organism, or organ from its original or primitive state to its present or specialized state; phylogeny or ontogeny". Evolution, as I have concluded, is a scientific term, which has taken on a more controversial and politicized meaning in the non-scientific community, due in part to misinterpretation and false or misleading definitions like those presented in common publications like Webster's Dictionary. In our society, is it possible to avoid the politicized issues surrounding evolution by giving the concept a new name? In January of 2004, Georgia State Schools Superintendent Kathy Cox proposed a new biology curriculum for students which would remove the term evolution from the classroom and replace it with biological changes over time. According to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution and other regional publications, critics are saying that this change in terminology will weaken students' learning experience. The adjusted biology curriculum would not require a revised textbook, nor would individual public school systems be prevented from teaching evolution in depth if they chose to do so. (2) Yet, even with this flexibility and minimal change to actual curriculum Georgia residents and politicians nationwide are in an uproar. An Atlanta Journal-Constitution online survey found that 12,900 people preferred the term "evolution" as opposed to the 1,783 who were in favor of biological changes over time. Evolution, according to the most scientifically accepted theories is biological change over time. In What Evolution Is, Ernst Mayr presents the same simplified definition, describing evolution as "...change in the properties of populations of organisms over time". (4) If Kathy Cox feels that the theory might be better accepted if it is known as biological changes over time, that is her decision as State Schools Superintendent.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

The Use of Physical Space in Architecture

Physical infinite The term environment is burdensome to cover with when trying to definite it briefly. However as Caldwell ( 1980 ) assert â€Å"everyone understands the term but cipher is able to specify it† . One needs to be sedulous, both in identify and curtailing it range because it circumscribe anything from the biosphere to the smallest animal ( Ladan, 2009 ) . The environment on an international graduated table is given by the wide scopes of issue being addressed globally. It includes sustainable usage of natural resources, biodiversity, and outstanding natural heritage, protection of the ozone bed, atmosphere, clime, and quality of life, safeguarding of human wellness and therefore doing environmental construction and infinites handiness to all. With a broader position, the environment encompasses the physical, economic, cultural, aesthetic and societal infinites. For this thesis work, accent shall be on the physical infinite, which is an built-in portion of the environment. The physic al infinite here refers to the built environment. The position of designers and metropolis interior decorators are such that the physical environment, to a big extent is referred to as the reinforced environment. Ahianaba, Dimuna and Okungun ( 2008 ) stated that, construct environment is the edifices and infinites between them. There is a relationship and interaction between the edifices and the infinites. The reinforced environment in many developing states is going increasingly worse. Peculiarly Nigeria built environment is in a province of desperation. Harmonizing to World Bank ( 2005 ) , a batch of factors are therefore accountable to the deteriorating position of Nigerian built environment. Unplanned metropolis design attacks, rural-urban migration, rapid urbanisation, regular economic downswings, neglect of urban housework, rot of urban substructures, to call but a few of them. Another important discouraging factor of the Nigerian urban built environment is non-compliance with constructing bye-laws and ordinances. This inatten tiveness consequences continually brings traffic hurt, dehumanisation and overturns the civic pride ( Ahianaba et al. , 2008 ) . Ahianaba et al. , ( 2008 ) further argues that in the formation of any environment, the physical environment is considered as the most of import built-in. The physical environment helps organisms, persons and at big, the public a direct contact and interaction. This interaction and relationship are largely obvious and existent. The relationship between human wellness and the physical infinite can’t be over-emphasised. An improved lodging system with handiness for all characteristics, good sanitation, recreational installations, and environmental hygiene could put a gait for an enabling built environment. The issues of overcrowding, slums development and homesteader colony, all have negative influences on our built environment. One of the focal point of this research work is to grok how a individual quandary i.e. an architectural design in the reinforced environment is keeping the people from really personal to economic domain of life. In an effort to unknot this individual design hindrance, we need to holistically look at the Nigeria built environment. It is non a far fetch truth that developed states are seeking and recommending remodelling of old edifices and increasing handiness characteristics in new edifices to carter for the turning handicapped and elderly public. ( ADA 2010 ; Equality Act 2010 ; ILO 2002 ; UNCRPD 2006 ) . In Nigeria context as enunciated by Ahianba ( 2008 ) , Nigeria built environment is fast decaying. A putrefy built environment can therefore non concentrate on handiness characteristic, her precedence will be how to acquire out the present province of desperation. The Nigeria built environment, deteriorating as a consequence of rural built environment missing proviso of basic comfortss. Where this comfortss are provided, they are unequal and do non work efficaciously due to laxness of relevant Nigeria governments. This has led to high rate of rural-urban migration. The urban infinite, hence has to postulate with overcrowding, substandard lodging system. As a consequence of this migration displacement from rural infinite to urban infinite, force per unit areas are on designers and metropolis interior decorators to carter for the pullulating migrating public. Nigeria characterised of an unplanned physical infinite, has two issues to face with. Suiting the new urban inhabitant and how efficaciously they will take part in the degenerating â€Å"unplanned† urban infinite. Ahianba et al. , ( 2008 ) , posit that â€Å"to better our built environment, there should be proviso of basic infrastructural comfortss, standard lodging, decrease of ove rcrowding, good sanitation and conformity with edifice bye-laws and regulation† Nigeria urban infinite is overcrowded as a consequence of addition in her population and deficient lodging. Lagos, Ibadan, kano, Enugu, Benin metropolis etc. , are Nigeria high denseness urban metropoliss. The ratio of tenancy per room in urban infinites is every bit high as 1:6 or 1:10 ( Federal Offices of Statics, 2001 ) . Overcrowding of Nigeria public infinite causes environmental pollution, deteriorate professional and societal services, destroys the beaches, recreational installations and Parkss, etc. ( Dubos, 1967 ) . The overcrowding issues of our urban infinite restraint the authorities into looking at the how the public infinites could be accessible and functional for her senior citizen as they age. Government range is being limited to how to decide the overcrowding. Disability and handiness as a societal issue ( Gleeson 1993 ; Oliver 1996 ) is a job that has a societal and wellness effects ( Asbell 1975 ; Chombant 1979 ) .The United Nation ( 1975 ) believes that African li ves in brooding and interact in a public infinite that is parlous and a cause of human indignity. This is largely reflected in Nigeria lodging system, which sometimes lacks conventional and natural airing, illuming and sunlight shading devices, buffers to cut down noise pollution and walkers for walk-way way of her people. These issues can’t be over-emphasised, they are indispensable aspect of comfy life. The urban infinites are non planned, it is a merchandise of â€Å"grown† development. It sprang and developed from small towns and trade station. However, they still retain their disused semi-permanent edifices. These are grounds for Nigeria edifices, jumping up randomly, roads are narrow, colony are homesteaders, addition rate of slum development, seamy environment, deficient traffic marks, etc. The hapless airing in Nigerian edifice designs causes her citizens to kip outside during dry season. Their house are either non good cross-ventilated or being block by another house or fencing. World Health Organisation nucleus map includes publicity of good lodging, enabling public infinites which must be environmentally hygienic ( WHO, 1946 ) . Borrowing from Osuide ( 2004 ) , one of the cardinal self-respect, physical and mental wellness, is holding a safe topographic point to brood. Odomudu ( 1987 ) and Sarinen ( 1966 ) argues that a good home and a functional public infinite esca late the well-being and aspiration of the people because the dwelling topographic point and public infinites are where domestic and personal map of each persons takes topographic points. The physical and mental wellness of a individual depends greatly on his or her environment. An person and his or her place are centerpiece of society ( Aihana et al. , 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Ahianba et al. , ( 2008 ) , to accomplish a functional and healthier built environment, on a Nigeria context, based on her present built environment quandary. Creation of aesthetics values, fancify the urban environment, good landscape gardening and ocular satisfying unfastened infinites should be integrated into the design strategy of designers and metropolis interior decorators. Advocating of an equal urban and rural colony, which should be conceptualised in an orderly manner manner of a good professionals be aftering. Government policies should be re-evaluated with a possibility for amendment and new Torahs or Acts of the Apostless emanating and rigorous conformity with bing edifice jurisprudence. Non-compliance with Nigeria constructing bye-laws and ordinances is one of the indispensable factor responsible for Nigeria disintegrating built environment ( Ahianba et al. , 2008 ) . In the sub subdivision of this chapter, it holistically looks at Nigeria constructing by e-laws and ordinances with the position that if the jurisprudence is being purely adhere to, possibly, it will further better the quality of Nigeria built environment and possibly, accessible to all her people. The town planning regulations and Torahs are being violated, which resulted to improper planning of the environment. In the creative activity of a reinforced environment, the issue of lodging is non an exceeding. Salama ( 2006 ) argues that lodging is the platform for the creative activity of life environment for adult male and his cater for his psychological and societal development. The issue of handiness in a adult male ‘s house ca n't be overemphasized because lodging transcend the physical dimension of shelter proviso for adult male but it encompasses the general environment within the edifice, which avail societal services and infrastructural services for optimal satisfaction of the utilizing public. Housing as a entire environment in which adult male lives and turn, should hold handiness characteristic included at the abrasion of the architectural design and non improvised at building or usage phase. The handiness issue therefore correlative between the quality of life and the quality of the physical environment in which 1s lives. Housing signifiers in Nigeria have over the old ages wear a enormous alterations in content, signifier, construction and spacial planning as a consequence of our delicate planet, alteration is the lone changeless thing. This changes harmonizing to sa'ad and ogunsusi ( 1996 ) have unerasable effects on the life styles of Nigerians and it therefore affects their orientation of the physical infinite. Housing as a contemplation of cultural, societal and economic values of any society as to be given proper consideration of planning and governmental policy should be geared toward achieving a humane and antiphonal environment. Housing which is a signifier of shelter and a larger portion of any states built environment, is one of the basic necessity of man’s being. Olotuah ( 1997a, 2002a ) argues that the insufficiency of lodging threatens the very footing of his beings. It enhances the public assistance, societal engagement and productiveness of adult male. The United Nation ( 1971 ) adopted that every citizens deserve an entree to adequate lodging without any hinderance whatsoever. The UN ( 1971 ) and by its indorsement in 1976 by 131 other states, was bore out of the fortunes of the demand to better the lodging criterion and insufficiency of the nation’s hapless bulk. Her cardinal purpose is the proviso of appropriate lodging within the economic range of the bulk of the public. Nigeria is a party to this pact but yet Nigeria authorities still finds it difficult to supply an enabling environment for lodging proviso, allow entirely an accessible lodging for her people. ( Olotuah, 2002a ) . The Nigerian authorities lodging programmes have non been able to fit the lifting public. It been left to the custodies of the private sectors. In Nigeria today, the private sector provide the majority of the lodging stock which do non hold handiness characteristic because their designs are non socially oriented but net income oriented ( Olotuah, 2009 ) . For this ground vast of the public will non look out for handiness characteristics in the edifice, instead will see how the lodging stock could be increased to run into the high demand. It is the sentiment of the research worker that every bit much as there is a diminution in the Nigeria lodging stock. Introduction of accessible characteristic in new designs and an effort to reconstruct bing constructions, will non incur an excess cost of building but it will assist advance the United Nations ( 1979 ) acceptance. Furthermore, doing the Nigeria built environment friendlier and less discriminatory to the people of different capablenes ss, which do hold their ain socio-economic values to the economic system of the state. The Nigerian designers have a great function to play in face-lifting of our reinforced environment. The quality of human home ground is a cardinal architectural issue in achieving a humane and antiphonal environment ( Olotuah, 2009 ) . The architectural design must be in such a manner that it improves the quality of the human environment through an orderly development of the human environment.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Development Of Maersk Drilling Essay - 1078 Words

Maersk Drilling (MD) is undertaking a large-scale, fundamental change to implement a new ERP strategy and develop the proficiencies to accomplish effects not possible simply by refining and enhancing their current way of organizing and optimizing work procedures. Maersk Drilling is implementing a deep change, in that it involves shifts in the behaviors, normative procedures, and standards of end-users. Structures, work processes, technologies, and finance practices are being intentionally redesigned to foster new procedures and performance. The employees mutually develop perceptions as they participate in both scattered and ongoing self-help training to plan and implement changes in what and how work is done with the new ERP system. The end-user’s needs and dynamics play an important role in an ongoing implementation process (Maylor). The empowerment and participation of Maersk Drilling’s employee’s needs, meets the human need for independence and responsibility (source). Furthermore, this empowerment and participation helps Maersk Drilling develop and capitalize on its intellectual capital. By emphasizing initiative, direct interaction and open communication, Maersk Drilling should be able to utilize their internal diversity to foster innovative responses to emerging needs and changes. The organization-wide change, which Maersk Drilling is implementing with the ERP solution, was conceived and initiated at the top organizational level (Interview source). In the projectShow MoreRelatedBusiness Strategies Of Oil And Gas Industry Essay1977 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction Strategies are constantly changing in business, especially in the oil and gas industry. Different strategies and new technology present a real challenge to companies pursuing to be the top performers in the industry. Enerplus, Aramco, Maersk and Jones Energy all have unique strategies in the industry. Interest in this fascinating industry was chosen because it was relevant to the local environment. This industry also employed many people across the state. This will provide some perspectiveRead MorePestel and Porter Five Force Analysis of Container Line Shipping Industry in India7062 Words   |  29 Pagesdestination against agreed freight rates. The reason for choosing this industry as part of study is due to enormous support being given by government of India to promote foreign trade for the economic development, as well as my personal experience of 5 years in shipping industry under AP Moller Maersk Group gave me thrust to explore more about this industry. * First we will analyse the overall industry using PESTEL analysis which refers to factors like Political, Economic, Social, TechnologicalRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pages– how can small players survive changing markets? Amazon (B) – latest developments in a successful Formula One – developing the capabilities for competitive success in a hi-tech industry. Manchester United – clash of expectations in the football world. Salvation Army – strategic challenges for a global not-for-profit organisation with a mission. Bayer MS – corporate social responsibility in the international development of a German company. Eurotunnel – clash of cultures threatens to derail