Tuesday, March 17, 2020

United Under One essays

United Under One essays Aldous Huxley once said, ...every cause is also an effect, and every effect is at the same time a cause. The Federalists wanted us all to be united; many different states that make up one great country with a central government to watch over them. They wanted organization for our nation and they had the government set up with representatives to would give each state a voice that could be heard. In the Federalist paper # 31, Alexander Hamilton addressed that the idea of a federation to give the states some power with a central government controlling the amount of state power. The idea was not to restrict and give the states no voice or power and it was not to tax everything in sight. Brutus implied that that was, what the Federalists were trying to do. The real fact of the matter is that states do need their own power and laws because they are separate and independent from other states, but their laws should keep in context with the nations laws and that there are certain issues states have where the nation needs to step in because of the states decision has an effect on the whole nation. The Federalists tried to control these effects by regarding the public good, considering all voices and holding everyone to the same standards. If California, or any other state decides to legalize marijuana for medical purposes not only is that state going against the government but also theyre also promoting more evil and not working towards the general welfare of America. The government clearly states that marijuana is an illegal narcotic, not just for certain states but for the whole nation. Hamilton talks about having central rules for our nation and the states can have their own laws also but they must abide with the national laws. If one state decides to legalize any illegal narcotic it causes more trouble for other states because someone could easily legally buy it there and take it back in...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The History of Ultrasound in Medicine

The History of Ultrasound in Medicine Ultrasound refers to sound waves above the human range of hearing, 20,000 or more vibrations per second. Ultrasonic devices are used for measuring distance and detecting objects, but it’s in the realm of medical imaging that most people are familiar with ultrasound. Ultrasonography, or diagnostic sonography, is used to visualize structures inside the human body, from bones to organs, tendons, and blood vessels, as well as the fetus in a pregnant woman.   Ultrasound was developed by Dr. George Ludwig at the Naval Medical Research Institute in the late 1940s. The physicist John Wild is known as the father of medical ultrasound for imaging tissue in 1949. In addition, Dr. Karl Theodore Dussik of Austria published the first paper on medical ultrasonics in 1942, based on his research on transmission ultrasound investigation of the brain; and Professor Ian Donald of Scotland developed practical technology and applications for ultrasound in the 1950s. How It Works   Ultrasound is used in a large array of imaging tools. A transducer gives off the sound waves that are reflected back from organs and tissues, allowing a picture of what is inside the body to be drawn on a screen.   The transducer produces sound waves from 1 to 18 megahertz. The transducer is often used with a conductive gel to enable the sound to be transmitted into the body. The sound waves are reflected by internal structures in the body and hit the transducer in return. These vibrations are then translated by the ultrasound machine and transformed into an image. The depth and strength of the echo determine the size and shapes of the image. Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound can be very useful during pregnancy. Ultrasound can determine the gestational age of the fetus, its proper location in the womb, detect ​the fetal heartbeat, determine multiple pregnancies, and can determine the sex of the fetus. While ultrasonic imaging can change temperature and pressure in the body, there is little indication of harm to the fetus or mother through imaging. Nonetheless, American and European medical bodies urge ultrasonic imaging to be performed only when medically necessary.